Biofeedback games

The objective of this work is to develop techniques that teach stress-management skills while patients play video games. As a step towards our goal of relaxation training, we combine biofeedback and adaptive games. Our approach combines game adaptation with a proportional positive feedback controller that modulates to reward low states of arousal/slow breathing rate. When tested against a traditional relaxation method (deep breathing), game biofeedback is more effective in transferring deep breathing skills to a subsequent stress inducing task. Further, it also leads to significantly lower arousal as measured by electrodermal activity and heart rate variability. The advantage of our method over traditional techniques is that  it teaches and allows practice of relaxation techniques while performing a task (i.e. playing a game) that is designed to increase user’s arousal level. And herein lies the main difference with traditional relaxation training, which encourage practice in quiet and peaceful settings that do not reflect the environments we encounter in daily life.

Prior to this, in another study we demonstrated an adaptive biofeedback game that aims to maintain the player’s arousal level by monitoring physiological signals. Here we model the player as a dynamical system whose output (varying arousal levels) must follow an external set-point (constant arousal). Specifically, the control law  manipulates the game’s difficulty level  so as  to maintain  a sustained  arousal  level, as  measured by electrodermal activity (EDA). We also proposed quantitative measures to characterize the effectiveness of the game adaptation mechanics in maintaining the arousal level of the user. Our  approach  has several advantages. First, it allows us to simulate the behavior of the system under different parameter settings, which can help guide the game development process. Second, the model provides a compact parameterization of the system, which facilitates the evaluation of different game mechanics. Finally, it provides objective measures of system performance (error, oscillation) that are complementary to subjective and observation-oriented measures often used in game evaluations.

2018

Ahmed, B; Monroe, P; Hair, A; Tan, C -T; Gutierrez-Osuna, R; Ballard, K J

Speech-driven mobile games for speech therapy: User experiences and feasibility Journal Article Forthcoming

International Journal of Speech-Language Pathology , Forthcoming.

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Parnandi, A; Gutierrez-Osuna, R

Partial reinforcement in game biofeedback for relaxation training Journal Article Forthcoming

IEEE Transactions on Affective Computing, Forthcoming.

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Ahmed, B; Zafar, M; Rihawi, R; Gutierrez-Osuna, R

Gaming away stress: Using biofeedback games to learn paced breathing Journal Article Forthcoming

IEEE Transactions on Affective Computing, Forthcoming.

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Wang, Z; Parnandi, A; Gutierrez-Osuna, R

BioPad: Leveraging off-the-Shelf Video Games for Stress Self-Regulation Journal Article

IEEE Journal of Biomedical and Health Informatics, in press, 2018.

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2017

Hair, A; Gutierrez-Osuna, R

Deep Breaths: An Internally- and Externally-Paced Deep Breathing Guide Workshop

Proc. 7th International Conference on Affective Computing and Intelligent Interaction Workshops and Demos (ACIIW), 2017.

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Parnandi, A; Gutierrez-Osuna, R

Visual Biofeedback and Game Adaptation in Relaxation Skill Transfer Journal Article

IEEE Transactions on Affective Computing, in press , 2017.

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Parnandi, A; Gutierrez-Osuna, R

Physiological modalities for relaxation skill transfer in biofeedback games Journal Article

Journal of Biomedical and Health Informatics, in press , 2017.

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2016

McKechnie, J; Ballard, K J; McCabe, P; Murray, E; Lan, T; Gutierrez-Osuna, R; Ahmed, B

Influence of type of feedback on effect of tablet-based delivery of intensive speech therapy in children with Childhood Apraxia of Speech Inproceedings

Proceedings of the Motor Speech Conference, 2016.

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2015

Parnandi, A; Karappa, V; Lan, T; Shahin, M; McKechnie, J; Ballard, K; Ahmed, B; Gutierrez-Osuna, R

Development of a remote therapy tool for childhood apraxia of speech Journal Article

ACM Transactions on Accessible Computing, 7 (3), pp. 10:1-10:23, 2015.

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Ahmed, B; Ali, H; Choi, J; Gutierrez-Osuna, R

ReBreathe: A calibration protocol that improves stress/relax classification by relabeling deep breathing relaxation exercises Journal Article

IEEE Transactions on Affective Computing, in press , 2015.

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Bhandari, R; Parnandi, A; Shipp, E; Ahmed, B; Gutierrez-Osuna, R

Music-based respiratory biofeedback in visually-demanding tasks Inproceedings

15th International Conference on New Interfaces for Musical Expression (NIME), 2015.

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2014

Lan, T; Aryal, S; Ahmed, B; Ballard, K; Gutierrez-Osuna, R

Flappy Voice: An Interactive Game for Childhood Apraxia of Speech Therapy Inproceedings

Proc. CHI-PLAY, 2014.

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Al-Rihawi, R; Ahmed, B; Gutierrez-Osuna, R

Dodging Stress With A Personalized Biofeedback Game Inproceedings

Proc. CHI-PLAY, 2014.

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Parnandi, A; Gutierrez-Osuna, R

A Comparative Study of Game Mechanics and Control Laws for an Adaptive Physiological Game Journal Article

Journal on Multimodal User Interfaces, 2014.

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Harris, J; Vance, S; Fernandes, O; Parnandi, A; Gutierrez-Osuna, R

Sonic Respiration: Controlling Respiration Rate Through Auditory Biofeedback Inproceedings

Proc. ACM CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI 2014) Works-in-Progress, 2014.

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2013

Parnandi, A; Ahmed, B; Shipp, E; Gutierrez-Osuna, R

Chill-Out: Relaxation training through respiratory biofeedback in a mobile casual game Conference

Fifth International Conference on Mobile Computing, Applications and Services (MobiCASE 2013), 2013.

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Parnandi, A; Son, Y; Gutierrez-Osuna, R

A Control-Theoretic Approach to Adaptive Physiological Games Conference

Humaine Association Conference on Affective Computing and Intelligent Interaction (ACII), 2013.

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Parnandi, A; Gutierrez-Osuna, R

Contactless Measurement of Heart Rate Variability from Fluctuations in Pupillary Dilation Conference

Humaine Association Conference on Affective Computing and Intelligent Interaction (ACII), 2013.

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Khan, H; Ahmed, B; Choi, J; Gutierrez-Osuna, R

Using an Ambulatory Stress Monitoring Device to Identify Relaxation Due to Untrained Deep Breathing Conference

35th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine & Biology Society, 2013.

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2012

Parnandi, A; Gutierrez-Osuna, R

Contactless Measurement of Heart Rate Variability from Pupillary Fluctuations Technical Report

2012.

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Son, Y; Parnandi, A; Gutierrez-Osuna, R

A Control-Theoretic Approach to Adaptive Physiological Games Technical Report

2012.

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Masood, K; Choi, J; Ahmed, B; Gutierrez-Osuna, R

Consistency and Validity of Self-reporting Scores in Stress Measurement Surveys Conference

2012 Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBS), 2012.

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Alamudun, F; Choi, J; Gutierrez-Osuna, R; Khan, H; Ahmed, B

Removal of Subject-Dependent and Activity-Dependent Variation in Physiological Measures of Stress Conference

Proceedings of Pervasive Computing Technologies for Healthcare, 2012, ISBN: 978-1-936968-43-5.

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Choi, J; Ahmed, B; Gutierrez-Osuna, R

Development and Evaluation of an Ambulatory Stress Monitor Based on Wearable Sensors Journal Article

IEEE Transactions on Information Technology in Biomedicine, (99), pp. 279 - 286, 2012.

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2011

Choi, J; Gutierrez-Osuna, R

Removal of respiratory influences from heart rate variability in stress monitoring Journal Article

IEEE Sensors Journal, 11 (11), pp. 2649-2656, 2011.

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2010

Choi, J; Ahmed, B; Gutierrez-Osuna, R

Ambulatory Stress Monitoring with Minimally-Invasive Wearable Sensors Technical Report

2010.

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Choi, J; Gutierrez-Osuna, R

Estimating mental stress using a wearable cardio-respiratory sensor Conference

Proceedings of IEEE Sensors, IEEE 2010.

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2009

Choi, J; Gutierrez-Osuna, R

Using heart rate monitors to detect mental stress Conference

Sixth International Workshop on Wearable and Implantable Body Sensor Networks, IEEE 2009.

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